Aspen bark and leaf (Populi cortex/-folium)

Published August 29, 1992.
List of German Commission E Monographs (Phytotherapy)

Pappelrinde/-blätter

Name of Drug

Populi cortes, folium. Aspen bark leaf.

Composition of Drug

Aspen bark consists of the fresh or dried bark of Populus species [Fam. Salicaceae], rich in salicin, particularly P. tremula or P. tremuloides, as well as preparations thereof.

Aspen leaf consists of the fresh or dried leaf of Populus species, rich in salicin, particularly P. tremula or P. tremuloides, as well as preparations thereof.

Pharmacological Properties, Pharmacokinetics, Toxicology

There are no pharmacological data available for the single drugs.
The following results are documented for extracts made from a mixture of aspen bark and aspen leaf (1:2).

[In herb preparations] the extract ratio is not always given:

The "phenylchinon writhing-test" in mice was initiated by administration of 6.3 ml aspen extract/kg of body weight through a stomach tube, an average latency of 8.7 minutes and a 42.8 percent inhibition of writhing was observed.

The "brewer's yeast inflammation-pain test" in rats, initiated by administration of 6.34 ml aspen extract/kg body weight through a stomach tube, resulted in a 45 percent increase of the pain wave after 4 hours.

In the dextran-edema test and the carrageenan-edema test in rats, after administration of 3.15 and 6 ml aspen extract/kg body weight through a stomach tube, no significant differences from the control animals were observed. Following administration of 360 mg of aspen dry extract/kg of body weight, the carrageenan-edema test showed a 12.3 and 13.5 percent volume reduction of the paws after 6 and 8 hours, respectively.

The cotton-pellet test in rats, initiated by administration of 3 ml aspen extract/kg body weight through a stomach tube, showed no significant differences from the control.

Compared to the control, significant inhibition of the synthesis of prostaglandin E2, I2 and D2 in the perfused rabbit ear was observed after administration of 2 ml and 10 ml of aspen extract/ml.

In the sensitized, perfused lung of guinea pig, 0.997 mg aspen dry extract/g and 0.334 mg fluidextract/ml inhibited the release of histamine by 43 percent and 76 percent, of leukotrienes by 83 percent and 78.25 percent, and of prosta-glandin E2 by 77 percent and 55 percent, respectively.

Clinical Data Clinical experiments are available only for rheumatic disorders. In clinical experiments the reduction of pain and swelling due to inflammation is demonstrated by a combination product containing aspen bark and leaf, goldenrod and ash bark.

1. Component of the Following Drug Combinations
Aspen leaf, aspen bark, saw palmetto fruit, stinging nettle root. Aspen leaf, aspen bark, stinging nettle root. Aspen leaf, pumpkin seed flour, globulin from pumpkin seed flour, goldenrod herb. Aspen bark and leaf, goldenrod herb, ash bark. 2. Claimed Uses of the Above Combinations
Early state of benign prostate enlargement, geriatric prostate with difficulties of voiding the bladder, pre- and post-operative treatment of prostatectomy, chronic inflammation of the prostate, prostate disorders with congestion, nervous prostate disorders, nervous bladder and atony of the bladder sphincter without organic reason for both men and women Early state of benign prostate enlargement, geriatric prostate with difficulties of voiding the bladder, pre- and post-treatment of prostatectomy, chronic inflammation of the prostate, prostate disorders with congestion, nervous prostate disorders, nervous bladder and atony of the bladder sphincter without organic reason for both men and women Therapeutic agent for prostate diseases, prostate hypertrophy with difficulty with urination disorders and formation of residual urine in the bladder, nervous bladder Acute and sub-acute rheumatic ailments, lumbago, sciatica, neuralgia. 3. Risks None known.

4. Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to salicylate.

5. Side Effects

In very rare cases, allergic reactions may occur.

6. Precautions

Use for prostate discomforts:

Note: This medication relieves only the discomfort of an enlarged prostate, without eliminating the enlargement.

A physician should be consulted at regular intervals.

7. Use During Pregnancy and Lactation

None known.

8. Interaction with Other Drugs

None known.

9. Dosage and Mode of Administration

The dosage depends on the respective amount of the drugs in the specific combinations; this amount must be documented for each preparation. No scientific knowledge is available to document the necessary dosage for the effectiveness of the drug.

For the two combinations for rheumatic ailments the dosage is given as 130 mg 3 - 4 times daily. The dosage for the combinations for prostate discomfort is 60 mg 2 - 4 times daily. The dosage in other preparations cannot be ascertained, because the drug/extract ratio is not known.

10. Overdosage

None known.

11. Special Precautions

None known.

Evaluation

Because of the pharmacological properties of the salicylate-containing drug, a positive contribution for the effectiveness in the combinations cannot be assumed, since the effective dosage cannot be attained with the extract. Empirical observations by physicians prescribing the single drug are not available.

12. Effects on Drivers and Operators of Machinery

None known.